How do you tighten a bolt?

 

Grade 12.9 bolts are tightened with a torque wrench, right up to their 90% proof load. There is no other effective way to tighten a grade 12.9 bolt. Automotive manuals will give the tightening torque required. Grade 12.9 bolts do not work effectively with spring washers or shakeproof washers. These don't bite into the hardened surface of the bolt. There are only two ways of adding extra security to grade 12.9 bolts. Use Loctite on the threads or drill the heads and wire the bolts. It is possible to buy pre-drilled cap screws. Mating surfaces of a 12.9 bolted joint are not painted. For serious work, never re-use a fully tensioned 12.9 bolt.

Grade 8.8 bolts are tightened by the part turn method, torque wrench, or by using load indicating washers. In the part turn method, the bolt is done up to snug tight, and then advanced one, two or three flats of the hexagon, depending on the size, length etc. The torque wrench method is used commonly, often in the form of an air operated rattle gun. Special load indicating washers, such as Coronet washers can be used. These have dimples which indent the mating surface. A feeler gauge is used to determine the pre-load. Grade 8.8 Bolts are used in High Strength Friction Grip applications. If this is the case, the mating surfaces must not be painted or galvanised. For added security of the joint , use any one of the plethora of systems such as spring washers, shakeproof washers, Loctite, wired heads, split pins and castle nuts, locking tabs, lock nut or patented nut systems (Nyloc is common). For serious work, use castle nuts, either with split pins or wired together in groups. Also for serious work, do not re-use fully tensioned grade 8.8 bolts, Nylocs, split pins etc.

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